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Moreover, these vocalizations can signal coupling accessibility and the social hierarchy of their partners. Reproductive cycles of the mangabey Cercocebus albigena. This site is not directly affiliated with Wickings Network. Nature Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Moreover, the deposition of urine and feces can also constitute marking behavior Ewer , Rails and is part of an animal's olfactory communication system.
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Plenum Press, New York. T Functional imaging of brain activity in conscious monkeys responding to sexually arousing cues. M Touch. L Baboon loud calls advertise male quality: acoustic features and their relation to rank, age, and exhaustion. P Evidence for scent marking in vervet monkeys? K Ecology and social variability in Cercopithecus aethiops and C. Jay ed. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York.
W Gestural communication of the gorilla Gorilla gorilla : repertoire, intentionality and possible origins. C Pregnancy coloration in macaques may act as a warning signal to reduce antagonism by conspecifics. Behavioural Processes. International Journal of Primatology, E Reproduction and population growth in free-ranging mantled howling monkeys. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, St Estrus vocalizations in two primate species Cercocebus torquatus atys and Macaca nemestrina : evidence for an effect of intrasexual competition.
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Pp In: B. Smuts, D.
Cheney, R. Seyfarth, R. Struhsaker eds. Primate societies. K The effect of rearing conditions on behavior. T The faculty of language: what is it, who has it, and how did it evolve? P Genital signalling and the coexistence of male vervet monkeys Cercopithecus aethiops pygerythrus.
Folia Primatol. M The communicative funcions of touch in humans, nonhuman primates, and rats: a review and synthesis of the empirical research. Behavioral Ecology. University of Bielefeld, Bielefeld, Germany. P Grooming in primates: Implications for its utilitarian function. II Uniformity of colour vision in Old World monkeys. H New World Monkeys and Color. Int J Primatol. P Scent marking in mammals. M Alpha male black howler monkey responses to loud calls: Effect of numeric odds, male companion behaviour and reproductive investment.
Behavioural ecology: an evolutionary approach. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific. T Grooming as a reward? Social function of grooming between females in cooperatively breeding marmosets.
F Scent-marking behavior in wild groups of common marmosets Callithrix jacchus. G Grooming behavior as a regulator of social interactions in Rhesus monkeys. Carpenter ed. Behavioral regulators of behavior in primates. Maestripieri, D. R Primate copulation calls and postcopulatory female choice. Pp In: R. Ciochon, A. Chiarelli eds. Evolutionary biology of the New World monkeys and continental drift.
New York: Plenum Press. Pp In: U. Molnar eds. Nonverbal communication: Where nature meets culture. T Vocal interactions between unfamiliar groups of captive cotton-top tamarins. Behaviour, T Communication. Giraldeau eds. The behavior of animals: mechanisms, function, and evolution. Blackwell Publishing, Fourth edition. J Biosocial functions of grooming behavior among the common Indian langur monkey Presbytis entellus. M The role of scent marking in the social communication of wild golden lion tamarins, Leontopithecus rosalia.
H Sex differences in nonhuman primate grooming. C Prolactin levels of fathers and helpers related to alloparental care in common marmosets, Callithrix jacchus. Schwartz ed. Oxford University Press, New York,. D Context and gender-specific differences in the acoustic structure of common marmosets Callithrix jacchus.
G Allogrooming behaviour among adult female Wedge-capped Capuchin monkeys. B Reconciliation and consolation in captive bonobos Pan paniscus. M Grooming down the hierarchy: Allogrooming in captive brown capuchin monkeys Cebus apella. M Afterword: research on facial emotion in chimpanzees, 75 years since Kohts.
Pp In: F. Infant Chimpanzee and Human Child. New York: Oxford University Press. Female Barbary macaque Macaca sylvanus copulation calls do not reveal the fertile phase but influence mating outcome.
Male Barbary macaques eavesdrop on mating outcome: a playback study. Münster: Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität. PIKA, S. M Ape gestures and language evolution. M Homologizing primate facial displays: a critical review of methods. M Usage and comprehension of manual gestures in wild chimpanzees. Animal Behavior. M Consolation as possible expression of sympathetic concern among chimpanzees.
M Post-conflict affiliation by chimpanzees with aggressors: other-oriented versus selfish political strategy. M Chimpanzee Pan troglodytes consolation: Third party identity as a window on possible function.
E Female reproductive cycles and social behavior in primates. R Reproductive cycles of the mangabey Cercocebus albigena. A Social change affects vocal structure in a callitrichid primate Callithrix kuhlii. B The behaviour and ecology of three species of marmosets and tamarins Callitrichidae, Primates in Brazil. C Priority of access and grooming patterns of females in a large and a small group of Olive baboons.
Animal Behaviour, E Adaptative evolution of facial colour patterns in Neotropical primates. F Changes in secondary sexual adornments of male mandrills Mandrillus sphinx are associated with gain and loss of alpha status. A Chemical composition of scent-gland secretions in an old world monkey Mandrillus sphinx : influence of sex, male status, and individual identity. L Production, usage, and comprehension in animal vocalizations. Brain and Language. M A model of social grooming among adult female monkeys.
M The distribution of grooming and related behaviours among adult female Vervet monkeys. W Preliminary observations on external signs of oestrus in moustached tamarins, Saguinus mystax, Callitrichidae. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, SILK, J. B The form and function of reconciliation in primates. C The pair-bond formation and its role in the stimulation of reproductive function in female common marmosets Callithrix jacchus.
Functionally referential communication in a chimpanzee. Agonistic screams in wild chimpanzees vary as a function of social role. H Behavioral discrimination between circumgenital odor from peri-ovulatory dominant and anovulatory female common marmosets Callithrix jacchus.
B Sexual competition and mate choice. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Mittermeier, A. Rylands, A. B da Fonseca. Ecology and Behaviour of Neotropical Primates, Vol. F Conditioned sexual arousal in a nonhuman primate. F Social odours, sexual arousal and pairbonding in primates. Circadian variation with a diurnal bimodal profile on scent-marking behavior in captive common marmosets Callitrhix jacchus.
L Resposta Reprodutiva de femeas de Callithrix jacchus a pareament os sucessivos: Repensando o mate guarding e o pair-bond. Pp In: M.
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Menezes eds. A Primatologia no Brasil, Vol. B An ethogram of the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus jacchus : General behavioural repertoire. L Primate grooming as a tension reduction mechanism.
G Responses of chimpanzees to copulation, with special reference to interference by immature individuals. M The facial displays of the Catarrhine monkeys and apes. Primate Ethology. M A comparative approach to the phylogeny of laughter and smiling.
Hinde ed. Non-verbal Communication.
Cambridge University Press. M A structural analysis of the social behaviour of a semicaptive group of chimpanzees.
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Expressive Movement and Nonverbal Communication. Academic Press. G Hormonal basis of sex skin in male rhesus monkeys. M Perceptual considerations in the use of colored photographic and video stimuli to study nonhuman primate behavior. American Journal of Primatology, I Evidence from rhesus macaques suggests male coloration plays a role in female primate mate choice. M Differential behavioural effects of silent bared teeth display and relaxed open mouth display in chimpanzees Pan troglodytes.
M Vox Alouattinae: a preliminary survey of the acoustic characteristics of long distance calls of howling monkeys. M Vocally mediated reciprocity between neighbouring groups of mantled howling monkeys, Alouatta palliata palliata. Pp In: H. Rothe, H. Hearn eds. Biology and behaviour of marmosets. Proceedings of the marmoset workshop. Gottingen: Eigenverlag Rothe.
L Reproductive cycles in Tarsius bancanus. J The anatomy of the circumgenital scent gland of Saguinus fuscicollis Callitrichidae, Primates.
Circulating and excreted hormones during the ovarian cycle in the cotton-top tamarin, Saguinus oedipus. Detection of the chemical signals of ovulation in the cotton-top tamarin, Saguinus oedipus. T Sexual communication between breeding male and female cotton-top tamarins Saguinus oedipus and its relationship to infant care. M Sexual selection and exaggerated sexual swellings of female primates.
Pp In: P. Sexual selection in primates: New and comparative perspectives. Causal knowledge of predators behaviour in wild Diana monkeys. Referential labelling in wild Diana monkeys. CEP: Corresponding author:. There is little consensus about which selective pressures fashioned primate colour vision, although detection of food, mates and predators has been hypothesized.
Behavioural evidence shows that males from different species of neotropical primates seem to perceive the timing of female conception and gestation; thus, the use of visual signals is expected in this group.
By registering the skin coloration of female marmosets Callithrix jacchus , and running a colour discrimination model, we show that chromatic variations occur in the genital area during the weeks that precede and succeed parturition, forming a U pattern.
According to our data, these variations can be perceived by males and females under three different light intensity levels dim, intermediate and high. We suggest that chromatic variation can be used as clues by expectant fathers to identify pregnancy stage in females and prepare for paternal burdens. Keyworlds: Colour vision, New World primates, pregnancy, visual polymorphism, light intensity, visual modelling. While Old World monkeys OWM have uniform colour vision, that is, all individuals are trichromats, New World monkeys NWM have colour vision polymorphism that is controlled by a single polymorphic gene locus on the X chromosome, resulting in dichromacy roughly equivalent to human red-green colour blindness in males and homozygous females and trichromacy also found in humans with normal colour vision in heterozygous females .
Three major selective pressures have been hypothesized as influencing the evolution of primate colour vision : detection of food e. The last hypothesis has been studied only in OWM  and strepsirhines , and no evidence in NWM has been reported.
Although studies on chromatic signalling are still non-existent, research in reproductive behaviour and physiology suggests that callitrichid males a NWM species can perceive the timing of conception and pregnancy stages in females . In wild and captive marmosets Callithrix jacchus , reproductive pairs display higher rates of contact and mateguarding behaviour during conception [8,9]. In wild tamarin Leontopithecus rosalia groups, during pregnancy of resident females, males direct aggressions toward immigrant females .
Experiments in captivity show that when Callithrix jacchus and Saguinus oedipus females are pregnant, expectant males go through hormonal and physical changes and gain weight . Apparently, males identify conception and pregnancy stage in order to enhance their food intake or change their metabolism so that the future fathers are prepared for their paternal duties , such as carrying offspring . Interestingly, male behavioural and physical changes occur before foetal growth and female weight gain , suggesting the existence of other, as yet unidentified, cues from females during different reproductive phases.
It seems that the detection of socio-reproductive signals by males is highly adaptive, especially in socially monogamous species with extensive paternal care investment, such as marmosets . Although the role of hormones in modifying the colour, size and texture of external genitalia is well documented for OWM  only one study has been conducted in NWM, where hormonally-induced coloration may also occur. This experiment, which considered the course of pregnancy in marmosets, observed a colour change in the vulval mucosa during the last four weeks of gestation , which might be a means of predicting imminent parturition.
Thus, using a visual modelling study, we test the hypothesis that, under naturally occurring light conditions, female marmosets show chromatic cues that may indicate the time of parturition to male and female conspecifics 2. Gestation age was estimated by transabdominal palpation  and counting backward from the day of parturition.
A total of 96 reflectance spectra coloration , from skin on the right and left side of the genitalia and inner thighs were measured and subsequently averaged, resulting in 48 spectra from both sides 24 from genitalia and 24 from thighs.
Moreover, the performance of one phenotype can be considered significantly better than another when the first distance exceeds the second by 1 JND .
As light levels in tropical forest vary extensively during the daytime , it is necessary to take into account different illumination effects on contrast sensitivity, since receptor noise acts according to the amount of light reaching the eye . RESULTS A reduction in colour contrast during the last four weeks of pregnancy followed by an increase in the second week postpartum, forming a U feature, was found for all phenotypes and under all levels of illumination Figure 1.
To the best of our knowledge, this is also the first study to model the influence of luminosity on the identification of primate sexual skin colour. Our study reveals that, despite the intensity of available ambient light, the colour contrast between female sexual skin and the surroundings during parturition exhibits a U feature, which may indicate the time of birth.
When compared to intermediate and high illumination, dim light significantly enhances colour contrast, suggesting that this reproductive cue may be detected especially under natural conditions such as forest shade at the beginning or end of the day .
Indeed, this corroborates behavioural evidence obtained from captive common marmosets, showing that males are more sexually active  and direct higher rates of contact behaviour toward their reproductive pairs  until a. Although the U feature remains under intermediate and bright light, the colour contrast between genitalia and surroundings disappears just before parturition, dropping to.
Since they capture more photons, longer-wavelength pigments may have closer absorption peaks, making them more advantageous under low light intensities . As reported by Perini et al. During pregnancy female common marmosets show hormonal variation characterized by an acute decrease of oestradiol and progesterone on the days preceding birth, as well as postpartum ovulation that generally occurs within 10 to 20 days after delivery .
Interestingly, this hormonal profile coincides with the chromatic variation pattern U feature described in our data, suggesting that a relationship between skin colour and hormonal levels during pregnancy. Earlier studies that have taken into account subjective human perception when investigating animal socio-reprodutive signals may have overestimated animal colour variation .
Since only colour visual models and some behavioural experiments consider the view of the beholder , future studies on mate selection that combine hormonal and chromatic contrast measurements during the female gestation period should be encouraged. We thank M. Vorobyev and R. Maia for elucidating questions about the model used in this manuscript, the marmoset husbandry staff for their cooperation and F. Coutinho for veterinary care. Jacobs, G.
H New World monkeys and color. Buchanan-Smith, H. M Recent advances in color vision research. Waitt, C. Setchell, J. A Is brightest best? Testing the Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis in mandrills. ChangizI, M. Clough, D.
M Individual facial coloration in male Eulemurfulvusrufus: A condition-dependent ornament?
A South American Primates. Comparative Perspectives in the study of behavior, ecology, and conservation. In South American Primates eds. Garber, A. Estrada, J. Bicca-Marques, E. Heymann, K. Barreto, C. Master s thesis. Natal: UFRN.
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